Vinland Blog 2024

Introduction
I have always been interested in the Vikings, especially their visits to North America and the encounters with the natives (Skraelings). As if to spur this on, I was commissioned to build a model of a Viking Longship for our Local Scandinavian Cultural Center. Near the same time I obtained a copy of the book Westviking by Farley Mowat (1965) and after reading it, decided to take a vacation to Newfoundland where L' Anse Aux Meadows, the only verified Norse site in North America is located. What I learned in Newfoundland and the subsequent results of my research is remarkable.

Probability Factor

PF1. Not likely. Prove to me that it is.
PF2. Possible
2-3
PF3. Likely
3-4
PF4. Most likely
PF5. Yup! Prove to me that it isn't.

A photograph of Mound City at Chillicothe, Ohio.
Mound City along the Scioto River (Illustration from Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley 1848)
Copper chisels found in Mound #3 at Mound City (Illustration from Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley 1848)
A manatee effigy pipe from Mound #8 at Mound City (Illustration from Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley 1848)
Anybody want to play Hungry Hungry Hippo? (Illustration from Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley 1848)
Effigy pipe of a bearded European face found at Mound City (Illustration from Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley 1848)
Illustration of grave at Mound #18, Mound City (Illustration from Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley 1848)
Picture A: Maine Coon Cat or Norwegian Forest Cat?
Picture B: Maine Coon Cat or Norwegian Forest Cat?
Sheffield, Ohio fortified enclosure now a playground (Illustration from Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley 1848)
Serpent or horse? Effigy pipe from Wood County, West Virginia. (Illustration from Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley 1848)
An old view of the Horse Creek, West Virginia petroglyphs
Fortifications at Independence, Ohio (Illustration from Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley 1848)
Ogam petroglyphs in Wyoming County, West Virginia
Skull from a mound in the Scioto Valley (Illustration from Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley 1848)
Front and top view of the same skull (Illustration from Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley 1848)
Fortified area at Conneasult, Ohio (Illustration from Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley 1848)
A map of the mounds at Serpent Mound Provincial Park, Ontario
A 360 degree view of the Petroglyphs in Prince Edward County, Ontario
Another of the Petroglyphs in Prince Edward County, Ontario
A closer photograph. Note the serpent head ship with paddle rudder at the left of the photo. Can the figure at upper right be a Viking with a conical helmet and axe, the strange suitcase shaped item at his feet a Mjolnir?
Artist’s interpretation of what Maiden Castle may have looked like during the Iron Age (BBC)
Danebury Hillfort in Hampshire has been subject to intensive archaeological excavations since the 1970s (Wikimedia Commons)
The Iron Age hillfort of Maiden Castle (DK Findout)
An artist’s interpretation of what daily life within Dudsbury Hillfort in Dorset may have looked like. Tall ramparts and wooden walls would have been a common feature across many hillforts (Kenning Illustration)
"When analyzing the various uses of hillforts, it is important to remember that only a tiny fraction of known hillforts have been excavated, and in some cases, no archaeological work has been completed at all. This makes it difficult and hazardous to create narratives surrounding their use when applied to other examples in different areas. Despite this, however, it would appear that the hillforts and oppida considered in this article all performed a wide range of functions that cannot be tied down into a single idea."

Quotation

The ramparts of the Penycloddiau hillfort in Wales’ Clwydian Range enclose about 60 acres, making it the largest such site in Wales. (Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales)
A wall built around the Andorsrud fort in Øvre Eiker in Buskerud, Norway. (Kristine Friis Jørgensen)
Iru Fort, Estonia, 1924
Fyrkat Viking Trelleborg could house roughly 20 longhouses within. One interesting Viking excavation in Fyrkat was the grave of a woman assumed to be a Viking seeress.
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January 15

Vinland Vignette

We start the new year with a couple interesting links, then a commentary on history before continuing with Central.

Viking Graffiti

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Viking Menu

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History Through Legend

Can the history of this planet be told through many of the ancients texts and legends that have been handed down to us?

I am going to specifically refer to the Bible, the Torah and the Q'ran in this article although I will make references to other texts and legends.

Although the entire creation myth from void to a fully populated earth only takes 7 days, remarkably the general order is in accordance with evolution and what we know of how this earth was formed. On day one we have the big bang theory science now contends with and we have man making his appearance on the last days. There are time inconsistencies however. In Genesis a day would take a billion years. Many of the characters mentioned such as Adam, Noah and Methuselah are said to have lived for centuries. Perhaps the concept of infinity and how long it takes for things to evolve was something our ancient ancestors had difficulty in comprehending. Maybe chroniclers advanced lifespans to make up for generations and generations of non event. All in all, if we discard the time factor, it is nevertheless astounding at just how close ancient texts and scientific data progress together. We also must discard the guilt factor. Because of man's misdeeds bad things happen. This is a most common ancient explanation of why major historical disasters happen.

Man and woman were created by an unknown or divine power. Many researchers are now considering a star seed theory.

Regardless, man was given a Utopia, a fresh unsullied earth that our hunter gatherer ancestors existed upon. Because of our use of forbidden knowledge, corrupted by a serpent named as the epitomy of evil, we were cast from the garden. Ancient serpent worship was considered one of the first religions of man. Caves in South Africa show ceremonies at 50,000 years ago. It is natural that early man first worshipped animal deities and in fact this is still the case in some cultures today.

Knowledge caused man's exile from the garden given to him. That is a simple parable of how from simple life man has advanced(?) to the complications and aggravations of living today.

We have Cain and Abel. An introduction of violence where brother pits himself against brother but Cain's exile also gives more reason for the migrations of people across the Earth. (As does the later tower of Babel).

Noah and the Ark tell the myth of the wipeout of an earlier civilization of man and how the few survivors repopulated the Earth. There are many other cultures worldwide that also affirm this disaster. A documentary studied a Sumerian legend about a man and his family who travel with a great flood until he finally finds land. His account was examined in detail and everything from boat dimensions to locations were found to be entirely feasible. The Great Flood also exists in numerous accounts from numerous other cultures.

The cataclysm of the Great Flood can now be dated to circa 9500 BCE. Whether this was caused by the retreat of the last ice age with glaciers melting and releasing vast inland seas or by a comet passing nearby the earth or hitting it is presently the theories being examined. Scientifically, the gravitational change of a close call comet could cause "waters to spew from the earth" and create atmospheric changes which would result in a "deluge".

Discoveries of ancient underwater structures have been occurring for some time now. There is the huge block pyramid near Japan, the paved road between India and Ceylon, numerous monoliths and henges. The recent discovery of Doggerland between Great Britain and Denmark has been likened to have sunk beneath the waves like Atlantis.

Another footprint of a pre ice age civilization is the megalithic polymer structures that are found everywhere. A prime example is the H blocks at Puma Punka in Peru and several other Meso American sites. An analysis of some of these stones show biological material within them. Some claim this proves the concrete theory. Others say the stones were melted with acoustics or solvents so they could be cut like butter.

Not only the Romans and Greeks but many other historical civilizations built on top of these earlier links in the history of man including some of the structures we are currently looking at in the Ohio Valley.

Not only are the clues found extensively throughout the world but there are many here in North America as far north as Edmonton and as close to home as the Cypress Hills of Saskatchewan.

Sceptics ask if this is the case, then why is there not more evidence and in response is the suggestion that most traces would have been buried under the sediment of huge mud slides that eliminated traces of this unknown people similar to the way ash buried Pompei, only on a much larger scale.

We thought Gobekli Tepi was history shattering at 7500 BCE and then Karahan Tepi came out at 9500 BCE. More searching has discovered dozens of sites, an entire culture that existed in this area thousands of years before the emergence of the Sumerians or the Egyptians. Quite amazing that all this takes place south of Mount Ararat, where in biblical records Noah landed and the reblossoming of civilization took place.

We must take a slight diversion from scriptures to look at Greek historians and the legend of Atlantis, which was once thought to be related to the Great Flood. This was a highly advanced civilization known for seagoing trade. The most likely candidate is considered to be the Greek island of Theros, which fits descriptions perfectly right down to a detailed description of it's harbour. It perished in a volcanic eruption around 1500 BCE. At this time Sodom and Gomorrah were destroyed in a rain of fire, now considered to be fallout from this eruption.

Looking at Moses, around the same time period, the plagues that beset Egypt have been scientifically explained as has the burning bush of Mount Sinai, an active volcano. The parting of a certain area of the Red Sea may have actually happened based on recent studies of winds and currents.

More recent diatribes examine in detail the historical references to Jesus.

In summary, why should these texts, revered by millions, not be considered as historically accurate as any other adopted records?

What has all this got to do with Vikings you ask?

First, a warning. When you research something, invariably there are other tangents that must be examined that force one to delve deeper into related subjects. One literally gets stuck in the past. My bad. Secondly, we must allow more credibility to the past. All the footprints that we have in the form of legends, records, oral histories (Viking!), art, song and poetry (don't let me get into Troy). Lastly, a major rewrite of history is long past due and I hope this blog will play a small part when the true story of the Vikings in North America is presented correctly.

Now, on to more serious stuff...

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I am once again posting the link to Squier and Davis' survey as it is quite a critical reference to this part of the blog. It can be viewed online or downloaded as a PDF file. Although many of the sites are posted in the photo section here, there are many more illustrated in their survey and this work can be used to compare with geographical locations:

Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley

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Chillicothe, Ohio
Mound City 1846
Copper chisels
Copper axes
Effigy pipes
Human remains

Just north of Chillicothe, Ohio is Mound City, one of the more spectacular of the ancient mound builder's sites. It was surveyed by Squier and Davis in 1846 who dug a number of the mounds. Although primarily a native site, some of the mounds contained very interesting or unusual items. Squier himself, who had a strong pro Christopher Columbus mindset, referenced that the burial methods here were 'analogous' to Celtic barrows.

Mound #3 was a grave mound. It contained a number of well constructed copper chisels.

Mound #7 was also a grave mound. This one revealed a number of copper axes. Seven feet into the mound were found 2 copper axes weighing 2 pounds each with lengths of 6" and 7" respectively. Then at subsequent depths of 1 foot, three more axes were found. At the bottom of the mound was a mica layer shaped like a crescent moon and a skeleton.

Mound #8 was an offering mound that contained among other items, a remarkable 200 effigy pipes. There were numerous bird and animal pipes. There were even some zoomorphic and human pipes.

Quite interesting were some that displayed very exotic birds and animals that were definitely NOT from the area. Their accuracy indicates the carver must have actually seen these animal. Toucans and other tropical birds have been identified as well as a manatee, otherwise known as a sea cow, an animal that only inhabits waters southward of Florida. One intriguing pipe reminds me very much of the old child's game 'Hungry Hungry Hippo'.

But by far the most definitive of the pipes has to be the one that features a bearded European face.

Mound #18 is another grave mound but this one is interesting because the skeleton at the base of the mound was laid on a bed of cobblestones 4' x 6'. Instead of being laid vertical the body was laid diagonally to fit, making this ancient over 7' in height. The skull was reportedly 'large and massive'. It's presence is currently unknown.
(I am waiting for the day the Smithsonian pulls a massive 'reveal')

This site is well preserved today as the Hopewell Culture National Historical Park.

Geographical location: 39.379, -83.006

PF 3-4

February 15

Here is one for the cat lovers out there. There is not much that really needs to be said. Enjoy the pictures.

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Norwalk. Ohio
Fortifications 1850

This was a complex with three hilltop enclosures and some mounds. Reported by Charles Whittlesey in 1850 from earlier surveys. It is now replaced with residential and roads.

Geographical location: 41.225, -82.644

PF 3

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Granville, Ohio
Fortifications 1847

Surveyed by Squier and Davis in 1847, it's unique shape can no longer be identified based on old records but Infirmary Mound Park seems to be in the described area.

Geographical location: 40.026, -82.516

PF 3

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Sheffield, Ohio
Fortified Enclosure 1840

Reported by Charles Whittlesey in 1850 from earlier surveys. The soil was much richer on the inside of the enclosure than without possibly indicating this to be nothing more than a protected or walled garden. It is now replaced with residential.

Geographical location: 41.461, -82.123

PF 2-3

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Sheffield, Ohio
Fortified Enclosure 1840

Reported by Charles Whittlesey in 1850 from earlier surveys. The soil was much richer on the inside of the enclosure than without possibly indicating this to be nothing more than a protected or walled garden. Geolocated by topography, this area is now a park with a trail and a playground.

Geographical location: 41.461, -82.094

PF 2-3

March 15

Maine Coon Cat vs Norwegian Forest Cat

From last month, picture A is a Norwegian Forest Cat while picture B is a Maine Coon Cat.

One of the major theories that is generally accepted is that skoggkats were taken on board Viking ships to take care of rodents. When arriving in the New England area they came off the ships and bred with animals native to North America. Also, genetic testing has indicated that the Maine Coon is a descendent of the Norwegian Forest Cat and an unknown (possibly extinct) local American breed of wildcat.

(Remember the Danish Sheepdogs in Peru?)

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Wood County, West Virginia
Effigy Pipe ca1840

This baked clay effigy pipe was plowed up in a field across from the mouth of the Hocking River where many mounds were purported to have been. It is most unusual in its design, being sinuous and terminating in what appears to be a horse or serpent head.

Geographical location: 39.177, -81.749

PF 3

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Horse Creek, West Virginia
Ogam Inscription pre 1983

These are also known as the Lynco, Lillyhaven or Luther Elkins petroglyphs.

Although known much earlier, information and a translation by Dr. Barry Fell were published in 1983. It is believed dating of this site to be in the area of CE 600-700.

Since then quite a serious debate has been raging as to whether these markings are Ogam or done by the local inhabitants. On the pro side is the University of California, Riverside while with the con viewpoint is the Council for West Virginia Archaeology

One can view both arguments and make their own decision by looking at these sites. Incidentally, following links from the University of California website will turn up a plethora of articles on PCE visitations.

Geographical location: 37.698, -81.677

PF 3

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Independence, Ohio
Fortifications 1816

Reported by Charles Whittlesey in 1850 from surveys sometime before the beginning of construction of the Erie Canal in 1816, this was three miles southeast of Cleveland. Now it is part of the city and replaced by freeway.

Geographical location: 41.417, -81.642

PF 3

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Wyoming County, West Virginia
Ogam Inscription 1981
Human Remains 1989

Known as the Cook Petroglyph, this panel is eight feet high and twenty feet long. It was discovered by archaeologist Robert L. Pyle in 1981. Here is a link that provides full details: Ogam Inscription

A phase two investgation of this site in 1989 turned up a skeleton in a nearby hollow. The skull was preserved and experts determined it to be of European origin. (Unfortunately Uncle Adolph did more harm than good with his twisted views on Phrenology.) This should be at the Wyoming County Historical Museum.

Later testing of the teeth confirmed this with carbon dating at CE 710 +/-40.

Here is a link that provides full details on the bones: Petroglyphman

Geographical location: 37.692,-81.633

PF 4

April 15

Valley View, Ohio
Fortifications 1846

These walls once overlooked the Cuyahoga River and the Ohio Canal. They are now completely replaced by residential. First catalogued by Squier and Davis in 1848.

Geographical location: 41.379, -81.608

PF 3

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Independence, Ohio
Fortifications 1848

These have been replaced by residential. First catalogued by Squier and Davis in 1848.

Geographical location: 41.352, -81.606

PF 3

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Bedford, Ohio
Fortifications

Just over a mile east of the Valley View fortifications overlooking Tinkers Creek is what is known as the Indian Point Fort. A YouTube video shows unhewn stone walls.

It is currently preserved as part of the Bedford Reservation.

Geographical location: 41.378, -81.568

PF 3

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Mount Carbon, West Virginia
Fortifications 1850

It was reported that Armstrong Mountain featured a Stone wall and two round towers. Nearby burial mounds contained seated figures. This site was known before 1850.

Geographical location: 38.137, -81.294

PF 3

May 15

Conneaut, Ohio
Fortifications pre 1850

This fortified hilltop in Kingsville Township was reported by Charles Whittlesey in 1850 from earlier surveys. Geolocated by topography. It now has Interstate 90 running through it.

Geographical location: 41.893, -80.644

PF 3

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Monongahela River, West Virginia
Paved Stone Road

This road was reported to run twelve miles between Tygart Valley and Catawba in a north south direction. No further information is available at this time.

Geographical location of Tygart Valley: 39.393, -80.262

Geographical location of Catawba: 39.528, -80.077

PF 2-3

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Peterborough, Ontario
Petroglyphs 1954

This site was listed as an engraving site by Craig, Phipps and Davis in 1954. It is most likely a site which contains petroglyphs. This also might be Petroglyphs Provincial Park.

Geographical location: 44.315,-78.395

PF 2-3

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Prince Edward County, Ontario
Effigy Mound 1860

This is known as the Serpent Mounds Provincial Park. It is a series of mounds in a snakelike pattern. It can be seen as a wooded area in Google satellite.

Here is the Government Website link:Serpent Mount, Ontario

The park is currently closed.

Geographical location: 44.209, -78.155

PF 3

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Prince Edward County, Ontario
petroglyphs 1860

North of Lake Ontario is Petroglyphs Provincial Park. There are literally hundreds of petroglyphs here but the most interesting is the serpent headed ship with a paddle rudder. Also of interest is the figure wearing a conical hat (helmet?) and holding an axe? Is that a Thor's Hammer at his left foot?

Here are a couple interesting links:

Peterborough Petroglyphs

Ancient Origins - Scandinavian Petroglyphs

Geographical location: 44.619, -78.044

PF 3-4

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Hastings County, Ontario
Human Remains 1860

First reported by T. C. Wallbridge in 1860 who did some excavations of numerous mounds in the area.

More excavations were made by Boyle in 1898. He reported this to be the site of a mass burial and crematorium. No grave goods were found. Details are given on page 15 of Burial Mounds of Ontario by W. A. Kenyon. The link accesses a PDF version of this text.

An Ottawa journalist, Andrew King also provides an interesting outlook on these and more mounds in the area: Hastings County Mounds

Geographical location: 44.299, -77.974

PF 3

June 15

Synopsis of Central

Of all the Pre-Columbian North American territories we look at, this is one of the more complicated to decipher. Even once we peel out the artifacts that can be attributed or related to older or non Norse visitors as well as indigenous efforts, there is still a confusing amount of cultures present. A number of these are over earlier layers while some are simultaneous with the Norse time frame. The native cultures of this area must also be layered in as the most predominant of all.

Three time periods must be looked at and the significant changes with the inhabitants examined.

*Around CE 500 we see the decline of the Hopewell Culture and within 200 years the emergence of the Mississippian Culture. This is also when finds in the north indicate Dorset/Thule contact with a Celtic/Alban people and we have reports of St. Brendan visiting 'Irland Mikla' (Greater Ireland). There is also some that suggest Madoc appeared at that time as well. This is also a period of great turbulence in the world. In CE 532 a major volcanic eruption, earthquakes and a bout of the bubonic plague labeled this timeframe in Europe as the onset of the Dark Ages.

*A second time period around CE 1100 has the breakup of the Woodlands Culture into more distinct tribes. This is when the Fort Ancient Culture emerges along with several other similar cultures with pottery styles being one of their only major differences. Raiding occurs along the Mississippi. There is no major disasters with the Earth and we have a period of warmer climate ideal for growth and expansion. This is within the timeframe of Viking incursions as well as that of the other suggested arrival of Prince Madoc. A well known native site on the east coast turned up Dorset burins (a type of drill bit made of stone) from hundreds of miles north as well as a Norse coin from this time frame.

*Around CE 1300 appears to be the height of the Mississippian and Fort Ancient Cultures. The planet is in a cooling stage. This is when a strong Norse presence should make itself known through colonization efforts, if there were such. Signs of Templar visitations may be present. Another wave of the Black Death surges through Europe. Although the native cultures end with post Columbian contact, their decline commences noticeably earlier.

Examinations by Mallery and others make strong reference to Celtic presence with footprints of barrows, forts, tools, Ogam and forges along with red haired beings that are seven feet tall. We then have further indications of Norse presence with later style forges, tools, mounds and structures. Remnants of bog iron are present. There are indications that this metal production lasted into the seventeenth century.

To date, with neither the Celts or the Norse, has there been found any significant quantity of real artifacts as there is in the east or west. Even taking into account any production of readily deteriorating bog iron, the kinds of footprints that provide any serious indications of settlement are lacking.

This brings up a critical question. Why did the Norse not settle in this incredible land of resources? In most cases where we examine Norse incursions, after trading comes settlement and ultimate assimilation of cultures. Simply enough, the answer is that there was never enough of a Norse population in this area of the continent to make a footprint. We see signs of established settlement west of the Mississippi River and east of the Ohio but these are limited populations with unlimited land.

Perhaps another answer comes in something stated on the Spirit Pond Poem Stone, which we will examine in the future: "Bearded chief man Haakon discovered a circle by being able to sail toward the west on the lakes of the trade empire."

The Trade Empire. This certainly describes central quite nicely. For millenia there had been well established trade routes through the center of North America, from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico, up and down the Mississippi River and the Ohio Valley.

The first Norse explorers would have simply followed these already well established routes. We find Moundsville, Cahokia, Spiro Mounds, Aztalan and many more trade centers throughout the continent. Encountering a large and generally peaceful civilization, the Norse would have originally participated in very limited trade in an already fairly sophisticated and well colonized land. One already complete with a Celtic presence.(There is very little evidence of Norse trade goods in this region. Their most valuable offering, metal, is already present with the Celts.)

July 15

* Today I have released digitally the latest book in the Kingbreaker series, The Kings Command. This 'swords and sabres' series follows the career and adventures of Alandros as he rises in status in his dealings with royalty. Anyone interested in receiving a complimentary copy of the series is requested to email me at: tvcmerchant@gmail.com.

Synopsis of East continued

Not only was the sixth century disastrous for the old world but it affected the new world as well. This can be seen by the break up of earlier native societies but could the emergence of other cultures be the results of our suggested old world contact?

That is possible. Early traders and explorers would have come to this area by following established trade routes. (We have briefly touched on visits by earlier cultures in past blogs.) Over the centuries some of these visitors would have been assimilated into the local populations while others would have kept their race intact.

Important here is the fact that there is a noticeable lack of any Christian footprints in this area such as there are in the east. That would remove an early Madoc or Brendan's Christian Irish from the picture. The traces of a Celtic people are present in this era, however. Mounds, graves, Ogam inscriptions, stone roads and structures abound.

When we compare the Ohio Valley hill forts to those of the British Isles iron age hill forts we see quite a similarity up to and including quantity. A database of 4147 old world hill forts can be examined here:

Database of Hill Forts

These two factors added to the southern influences on effigy pipes suggest the Celt's encountered were of the pre Christian migration that most likely came up the Mississippi with the Phonecians. Ancient native legends have it that these people were not liked and continually forced westward until they met their demise at the Lovelock caves, Nevada.

It is likely a less deplorable sect of the Celts (non cannibal) made their way north and encountered the residents of the Ohio Valley where they seem to have settled amicably.

Something happened for the Fort Ancient Culture to emerge around CE 1100. What would prompt a society of peaceful agrarian traders and builders to construct such extensive defensive fortifications up and down many river valleys as they did? Perhaps the answer comes from as far away as Cahokia where raids on nearby settlements caused the building of pallisades. Is it possible there were Norse raiders that made it to the Ohio Valley?

The type of Knorr (ship) that Leif Eirikson and other 'Vikings' sailed is quite capable of navigating all the major waterways and even many minor ones while the type of vessel used by raiders was slimmer with a much more shallow bottom for venturting even further up rivers and streams. (We have evidence of early exploration in northwest Oklahoma.)

Could the Norse footprints we see here be the results of conquest or defenders? Did they assimilate and modify the forges already present at the hill forts? Or did they attack and conquer? Could the changes have been the result of inter tribal dissension? There seems to be many divisions of peoples in this area around this time period. Cultures are differentiated by pottery style. Perhaps what we see is the consequences of inter tribal feudal warfare.

Is it possible the Welsh Prince Madoc was the instigator? Several documentaries allude that the Fort Ancient culture was actually him and his followers. The time frame fits but again there is a lack of Christian artifacts.

Summary

All in all we are not seeing a lot of Norse or Celtic presence, possibly just enough to influence cultural changes. It is clear certain Celts were held in esteem by the mound builders but we also learn of battle sites and mass graves.

To really understand the true history of this region we must delve deeper than we have. The Celtic migrations must be examined in far more detail as does the Norse visitations by precisely which Norse cultures were there.

Up to now I have been generalizing, stating Viking for pre 1066 (or so) and Norse for after that date. But were our visitors Greenlanders? Icelanders? Norwegians? Danes? Swedes? Sami? Gottlanders? or others?

Luckily, many of these Ohio Valley sites are very well preserved and where not, locations are still pinpointed thanks to the detailed work of the early surveyors of this country. The technology of future generations of archaeologists will give us more clearly the true story of PCA (Pre Columbian America) and what happened in this central part of North America.

....to be continued.